The Evolution of Training

When people pick up a sword or bokken for the first time under the watchful eye of a teacher, they usually find the sword, for all its outward simplicity, to be very complex. Swords are not like lightsabers; they cannot cut through anything in any direction. There is a specific cutting edge, and even within that edge, the first third(from the tip)is for cutting-the “monouchi,” middle third for deflecting-the “nakahodo,” and the third closest to the hands is for blocking-the “tsubamoto.” [This is the common wisdom, but we were taught that the back of the sword-the “mune”- by the hands was for blocking(You cannot block a sword. You have to get out of the way!), the sides of the sword-the “shinogi”-were for deflecting, and the edge-the “ha”-was for cutting, with an emphasis on the monouchi.] Most beginners struggle with the grip and leave their hands to the side with their thumbs on top. This grip is the easiest to disarm because the thumbs are weak compared to the hands. It takes many years to get comfortable with the proper grip.

With the proper grip, the extension and arc of the sword must be developed. Many beginners use the sword like a club and think that they must “hit”. This is very common for Kendo practitioners who begin Iaido. Because they are so used to using a shinai, their focus is on hitting instead of slicing. Furuya Sensei would say, “Contact, not impact.” The sword slices on an arc. It’s shape tells us that. It is not like a Scottish Claymore use to cleave through or pierce heavy armor. Training the correct grip, sword arc and timing requires a lot of input from the teacher, and a lot of time. These movements are not natural and are quite difficult to learn. It takes years to learn the proper cut. The impurities of the “natural” movement surface and must be corrected or the student will never learn the proper way to use a sword. This type of training is called “Renshu” or “Forging Practice”. This type of training is often difficult as it makes us confront the frailty of our own egos, but that is the way.

In this confrontation, as the student is trying to reconcile the way he is doing it with the way the teacher is telling him to do it, the reasoning behind why it is done that way surfaces. Japan’s history is interesting to study, but all history is interesting. Learning about how we developed as a species and all the individual cultural perspectives allows the learner to become more human. Patterns emerge from the contrasts in the respective cultures and that allows a broader perspective on what is truly a human impulse as compared to the unique forces of a given time and place. The samurai in the Satsuma clan were well known for their and skill in battle. Their particular calling card was an unstoppable overhead strike. After battles, it was common for swordsmiths and strategists to walk over the battlefield to see what could be learned from those who lost their lives. Why had they failed? The pattern that emerged was that many of the dead were found with their own swords embedded in their skulls cross ways with another vertical slice creating a “+” shape. It was determined that they had tried to block the overhead strikes of the Southern Satsuma samurais. The resulting logic was to teach the samurai facing the Satsuma not to block the strike. Instead, techniques for deflecting the strike and countering were developed as well as techniques to get out of the way of the strike. Hence, Sensei’s lesson about “You cannot block a sword. You have to get out of the way!” This type of learning can only be passed down through “Keiko” or “Reflecting on the Past.” From Keiko, we are able to discover the “Why?” to all the techniques of swordsmanship. Keiko is even more valuable today than it was just 150 years ago because no one engages with swords anymore. We must look to first-hand accounts and documented engagements in order to learn the “why?” behind the technique. Otherwise, our technique becomes empty fantasy that has lost the martial and is only left with art. This is one of the reasons Furuya Sensei recommended that we read The Sword of No Sword: Life of the Master Warrior Tesshu. Master Tesshu’s way was grounded in Keiko.

After a learner has been through Renshu, reasoned with Keiko, that learner could be ready for “Minari” or “Watching and Learning.” Minari is a type of training that allows the viewer to consider the renshu and keiko of others along the way. It is common for students to get injured as a natural part of the aging process, the older we get just sleeping can cause injury! Some injuries prevent us from stepping on the mats of the dojo, but that does not prevent us from training. Minari allows us to see and learn things we may have missed, and feeds into our keiko, or its evolution “Shugyo”-“Religious/Spiritual Training”.

The types of training unfold to us with each successive step along the way. It always starts with Renshu, which leads to Keiko, that inspires Minari, which develops Shugyo, and after more time a learner will have been “Kyoiku”, “Raised/Nurtured in the teachings”, which makes it possible for the learning to leave the dojo and create “Sumikomi”, “Live-in Training” that can be seen as training in every moment of our lives. O’Negai Shimasu.

Beginners Wanted

There are many teachers in the United States and worldwide teaching martial arts. Training with Izawa Sensei has provided me with opportunity to train in Japan, Romania, and even teach in Hungary. I am very blessed to have had these opportunities and impressed with all those Aikido teachers and students from around the world. It is beautiful that people from different cultures with different languages can come together and exchange in a language of Aikido.

People seem to come to train in Aikido and Iaido for many reasons. Some students want to increase their health and approach the class with an exercise mentality. Some students want to learn about the tradition and culture, while others want to recreate a fantasy that they saw in some form of entertainment. Some are doing it because their parents make them and others because they are compelled to do it. All those reasons are discarded once training begins; they must be discarded and left behind so that we may stay safe. When someone is attacking, there is no time for reasoning. We must get out of the way, or blend, or get hit. As beginners, we get hit a lot, but the physical confrontation is not lasting, instead it is the confrontation of the mind that lingers. It is the ego that gets hit the hardest and the chain of the ego’s mechanisms of preservation begin, if we let it. Someone with a beginner’s mind will accept the failure and work to succeed. This is a healthy, growth mindset and usually results in quicker learning, but many beginners do not accept the failure. I see this most in adults. Children seem to be much more flexible with learning. They expect to struggle and fail, because they accept that they don’t know. Adults tend to expect to know how to do things, and forget that they are beginners. A child has only had a few years of life, but an adult…they’re supposed to be experts, right?

The adult “expert” then goes into trying to make himself look like “an expert” and mask his vulnerability exposed by failure with speed, or power, or both. This usually has really bad results. He either hurts himself, or, worse, someone else. He tries to force the technique by muscling through the movement. If he is using a sword, this results in cutting the saya, straining a muscle, being off balance, or damaging the sword. If he is using another person’s body, then his partner experiences pain in some way: being overstretched, being thrown down in a rough way, or having the person fall down on top of him. This is bad, and it all leads to more ego confrontation resulting in embarrassment or injury.

The “expert” is interested in results, and only focuses on results. The “beginner” focuses on learning and the process of learning.

In my training, I try to be a beginner. For many years after I became Shodan, I still wore a white belt. Even after Nidan, I still wore a white belt. I only wear a black belt because Izawa Sensei requested me to do so, he believed it would confuse people who didn’t understand or were new to the dojo. New people always want to know what rank we are, and when they can wear a hakama. I usually try to discourage these people from training because they aren’t usually interested in learning the art. Their thinking is focused on the superficial body, but not the internal mind.

I remember Furuya Sensei telling me I should wear a hakama to assist with the teaching of the Children’s class so that the kids to tell me apart from the other students, and Gary Myers Sensei was standing there and said, “You mean the beard won’t be enough?” I can’t remember what Furuya Sensei said in response, but he wanted the children to be able to tell between teachers and students. There were adults in the class who were students, but it goes to the core of my philosophy on teaching and learning. All our teachers are still learners, they are just more experienced learners. They are not “experts.” They may have already walked the section of path that we find ourselves treading, but they are still discovering what is in front of them. The moment is the master, and we are all its students.

As you walk your path, do it with a beginner’s mind. Be kind to yourself when you fail. Shed your expectations and discover. O’negai shimasu!

The Stable Center

In the beginning of Iaido training, the focus for most is on the sword. A beginner often wants to “cut” and hear the “whoosh” of the sword or bokken. At the very least, the beginner wants to hold a sword and swing it. It’s probably what brought the person into the dojo in the first place. The beginner receives instruction from the teacher about grip, stance, arc, timing, visualization, and relaxation, but the beginner wants to see and hear the results of training hard by swinging the sword and creating movement and playing samurai. After a while, the fantasy fades and real training begins, or the person quits because real training is not what he thought it would be.

Posture is paramount. The head and hip should be vertical and form a stable axis around which everything can move. Stability of that axis, once established, remains the focus as movement is added. Extending one’s arms shouldn’t pull the body one direction or another. The added weight of the sword shouldn’t alter the axis as the cutting motion begins, ends, or meets an obstacle/target. The stance in its varied width and breadth should support the stability of the axis so that all movement is connected to the cutting motion and the cutting portion of the sword. A stationary axis is easier to control because it’s easier to identify the different forces acting on the center.

Then, movement of the axis is added. First, up and down, then forward, then …let’s not get ahead of ourselves.

The center must remain stable. If the center is not stable, any movement will pull the center off its course. As dynamic beings, we are in constant change and motion. As we travel through our lives, there will always be forces that try to pull or push us in one direction or another. If we are to continue, we must be able to resist those forces and maintain our paths.

To move our center up from a seated, seiza position, there is a force that builds in the center and finds vertical movement as the place of least resistance. This force pushes our center up and we find ourselves on our knees with our toes curled. The center expands as one foot steps out creating a triangle with the ground as its base and our center as its apex. Tension continues to build from the connection that our feet have created and our center is propelled further until we are standing. The expansion is complete. One foot is forward, the other is behind on parallel lines shoulder-width apart. The back leg is straight. We are stable. We then bend the back leg and begin contraction, lowering our center to the ground until our knee from our back knee comes to rest on the ground creating a straight line from the tip of our heads to our knee. Then the front foot slides back so that both knees are on the ground, toes lie flat, and we lower the center back to seiza. The whole time the head and the hip are in a straight, vertical line.

A stable center is necessary for the transfer the maximum power to the tip of a sword, or any tool. Only from a stable position can we act in any way that can have impact.

Dojo-A Place of the Way

Looking up the definition of “dojo” in a translation dictionary, one may find “place for practice or tournament (martial arts).”  The literal translation has been “do”=”way or path” and “jo”=”place”.  “Place of the Way/Path”  In all the arts that have “do” at the end: Aikido, Kyudo, Jodo, Kendo, Iaido, Judo,…. there is a differentiation between the “technical” or “justu” and the elevated, transcendent, lifelong, “do”.  One could be proficient in Iaijutsu, but miss the higher, unexplainable Iaido.  This differentiation is the essential component of a dojo.

The path is a solo journey.  There may be others near by, but the path is an individual’s to take.  There will be times when there are many people around and going in the same direction, but there will also be those times when there is no one to be found, except ourselves.  It is ourselves that we must confront. It is ourselves that we must accept. It is ourselves that we must inspire and love.  And it is ourselves that we must transcend.  This is the “way”, “path”, or “do”.

A dojo is a place for the practice of that journey so that when we confront the world we can accept the problems, inspire solutions, love the work, and transcend.

The teacher’s role in a dojo is not to just teach the jutsu, it is also to create an experience that invites the student to walk the path.  It is not idle, friendly chit-chat.  Creating the experience can be direct instruction, observation, and/or modeling.  It is never empty.

The student’s role in a dojo is to steal as much as possible.  Squeeze as much knowledge out of every moment.  Analyze every movement, word, and intent; then do it again to interpret it from another perspective, then another, and another.  To be a student is to never stop thinking about the lessons so that learning is infinite.  Then, the world is the dojo.  O’ negai shimasu?